1/2 |
1/4 |
1/8 |
This lesson was created as a part of the SMART
website and is hosted by the Illinois
Institute of
Technology
This
lesson is intended for third grade, but can easily be adapted for lower
or
higher grades. The time allotted for this lesson can be 1 to 2
weeks.
Objectives:
manipulate materials to show examples of equivalent fractions
Materials needed:
construction paper, paper plates, crayons, plastic knives, oranges, paper towels, math textbook, math worksheets, games, software programs: Mighty Math Number Heroes, chalkboard, and colored chalk, manipulatives like: Fraction Cubes, Fraction Stax, and Frog Pond Fractions (game which can be used like manipulatives.) |
1. Pass out a sheet of construction paper to students and tell them to fold the paper in half. Explain to them that they have just divided a whole sheet of paper into two equal parts and that a fraction is a part of a whole. Ask the students to take a crayon and trace the fold of their papers and color one-half or one part of their paper. Write 1/2 on the chalkboard and say that the part of the paper they colored is called one-half and can be written as: 1/2.
2. Ask the students to think of something that might be divided into halves. Write those things on the chalkboard. Hopefully, some of the following things will be named: a sandwich, an orange, a candy bar, etc. Tell the students that there are two words or terms that you want them to remember. Write the words numerator and denominator on the chalkboard. Have the students say the words. Tell them that the top number in a fraction is called the numerator, and the bottom number is called the denominator. Further explain that the numerator tells how many parts are shaded, and that the denominator tells the total number of equal parts.
3.
4. Tell the students that they are going to work in pairs. Give an orange and a plastic knife to each child. Have them place the orange on the paper plate. One student will cut the orange into two equal parts. The other student will cut the halves of the orange in half so that there are four equal pieces. Instruct the children to put the orange “back together”. How many parts are there? (The response should be “four”). How many parts make up 1 whole orange? (The response should be “four”). Say, ¼ + ¼ + ¼ + ¼ = 4/4 or 1 whole. Can anyone write a number sentence that shows that?
5.
Pass out two generic paper plates to each student.
Have them to fold one of the plates in half.
Trace the fold with a crayon.
Cut along the fold until the plate is cut into two equal parts.
Tell the students to label each part ½.
Have the students place each half onto the other plate.
Ask the students to describe what they notice.
Hopefully, they will respond by stating that two halves is the
same as 1
whole, or two parts make up one whole, the parts fit inside the other
plate.
6.
Next, have the students take one of the halves and fold it in
half.
Trace the fold and cut along the fold.
Do the same with the other half.
8.
Follow up activities in the Computer Lab using Mighty
Math Number
Heroes.
Assessment:
1. Teacher observations.
2.
http://www.quia.com/jg/65839.html
or
http://www.math.com/school/subject1/S1U4Quiz.html
Fraction Quiz. (80% mastery)
3. Test on Fractions. (80% mastery)
Resources:
http://funbrain.com/fract/index.html
http://www.visualfractions.com/IdentifySets/identify_sets.html
http://www.aaamath.com/fra16-fractions.html
http://www.mathleague.com/help/fractions/fractions.htm#whatisafraction
http://math.rice.edu/~lanius/Patterns/notes.html