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Gupta, Raj Schurz High School
1. To develop the concept of diffusion.
2. Demonstrate diffusion of molecules of matter in various states.
Apparatus and materials needed:
Peppermint oil, potassium permanganate, evaporating dish, 250 ml.
beaker, glasses, water, powdered drink mix, straws, raisins, pipette, spatula,
sandwich bag, marble and teaspoon.
1. Orally review the structure of the cell by using the sandwich bag
filled with water and a marble to represent an analogy of the cell. The
students know about the presence of openings in cell membranes and
about the possibility of molecules moving through these openings.
2. To demonstrate diffusion, pour sufficient peppermint oil to cover
the bottom of an evaporating dish. As each student detects the odor, he
or she will raise his hand. Continue until all members of the class have
detected the odor of diffusing molecules. At the conclusion of the
demonstration, the air and oil molecules have spread out and mixed
evenly, they continue to bump and move. This spreading out is called
3. To observe diffusion of a solid, fill a 250 mL beaker with
distilled water and add several crystals of potassium permanganate.
Watch the results as the crystals settle to the bottom. Discuss this
phenomenon with the students.
4. To observe diffusion of a liquid, place a glass of water at each
student's desk. Do not touch the water; keep the water still for this
test. Carefully drop a teaspoonful of powdered drink mix into the glass of
water. Watch it for a few minutes without touching the glass. It will
go to the bottom and start diffusing.
5. To observe diffusion in raisins, place several raisins in a glass of
water. Let them sit overnight. Keep some raisins dry for a control.
Distribute to each student some soaked raisins and dry raisins. Let
them compare the two kinds of raisins and answer the questions on the
Answer the following questions to show the understanding of diffusion.
1. What is diffusion?
2. Refer to the raisin experiment and explain the difference between the
soaked raisins and the dry raisins.
3. What is the evidence that something passed out of the raisins but
4. What is the difference between the bag's cell membrane and the raisin's