To Have Or Not To Have Oxygen (Part I - Fermentation)
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West, Anna DuSable High School
1. The students will be able to describe the process of glycolysis.
2. The students will be able to infer the reactants and products of
1 liter bottle grape juice sauerkraut
7 large styrofoam balls large balloon ethyl alcohol
28 small " " sour milk bacteria slide
acetic acid litmus paper colored circles
3 microscopes yeast shredded cabbage
chicken leg 2.5% salt solution lactic acid
pipe cleaners waterbase paint yeast slide
muscle slide yogurt(optional) grapes(optional)
1. Color: 6 large styrofoam balls light blue on one side and dark
blue on the other to represent glucose.
1 large styrofoam ball dark green to represent oxygen.
4 small styrofoam balls red on one side and pink on the
other side to represent adenosine.
12 small styrofoam balls yellow on one side and brown on
the other side to represent phosphate.
4 small styrofoam balls dark green on one side and light
green on the other side to represent NAD.
8 small styrofoam balls brown to represent hydrogen.
2. Connect: the 6 glucose balls with pipe cleaners
an adenosine ball with 3 phosphate balls to make ATP (2)
an adenosine ball with 2 phosphate balls to make ADP (2)
3. Make up student model packages using colored circles that match
the styrofoam balls. This can be done for 6 teams.
4. Set-up: Students will bring answer sheets to each set-up and work
as a team.
Set-up I. Add a package of yeast to the grape juice in the liter
bottle and place the large balloon over the neck of the bottle 3 days
ahead. Place in a dark area. On the day of the lesson place the
fermented grape juice with the inflated balloon, the microscope with a
yeast slide, and a labelled 50 ml beaker sample of ethyl alcohol. As an
added treat you can have two or three grapes in foil for each of the
students to sample.
Direction sheet: Read all directions first!
1. Test the ethyl alcohol with litmus paper. Is it an acid or base?
(Blue to red = acid; red to blue = base).
2. Use your senses to observe the set-up. Which senses should you
3. Examine the yeast slide under the microscope. Do not move the
slide. Use only the fine adjustment knob.
4. List your observations of the entire setup.
5. Decide which reaction is represented.
6. Prepare to move to Set-up II. Remove your waste. You may sample
Set-up II. Ten days before the lesson add shredded cabbage to a clear
quart container and fill the jar with a 2.5% salt solution. Label the
container Homemade sauerkraut. Place a jar of commercial sauerkraut
some samples of which have been placed on foil for the students to
taste, the microscope set up with the bacteria slide, a sample of
shredded cabbage, a 50 ml beaker of 2.5% salt solution, a 50 ml beaker
of acetic acid. Optional: plain yogurt, cheese, and tofu can be
Direction Sheet: Read all directions first!
1. Test the acetic acid with the litmus paper. Is it an acid? (Blue
to red = acid. Red to blue= base).
2. Examine the Homemade sauerkraut. You may taste your commercial kraut
samples. Use toothpicks to lift your sample from the foil.
3. Examine the bacteria slide. Do not move the slide. Use only the
fine adjustment knob.
4. Note the other examples present. List your observations about the
5. Decide which reaction is represented.
6. Prepare to move to Set-up III. Remove your waste.
Set-up III. 5 days before the lesson, begin souring a pint of milk. On
the day of the lesson, pour the liquid off of the clots into a 50 ml
beaker and label. Place the skinned chicken leg (displays muscle
tissue) on foil; set up the muscle slide; pour lactic acid in a 50 ml
beaker; and place a heavy book at the setup.
Directions Sheet: Read all directions first!
1. Test the lactic acid and sour milk with the litmus paper.
Are they acidic or basic? (Blue to red = acid; red to blue = base).
2. One member of the team should hold the book with the arm extended
as long as possible. Explain to your classmates how your arm feels.
3. Examine your chicken sample. What type of tissue is predominant
(seems to be the most abundant)?
4. Examine the muscle tissue slide.
5. List your observations of the entire setup.
6. Decide which reaction is represented and where this reaction takes
7. Prepare to move to Set-up I. Remove your waste.
Lesson Presentation: Request all handouts from writer.
1. Review the students by using the overhead projector and a review
sheet which will prepare the students for the lesson.
2. Pass out the lesson sheets 1-3.
3. Sheet 1 will be used to demonstrate the process of glycolysis by
using students and the styrofoam balls. The teacher will
represent the enzymes.
4. Sheet 2 will be used to demonstrate the possible reactions
during Fermentation according to the organism, and also give
instructions for the phenomenological activities the teams will
5. Sheet 3 will contain the activity 3 questions 1-5, and homework
Team Activities: Teams will start at their number and rotate to the
next higher number every ten minutes. Team 6 goes to 1.
1. Do the vocabulary matching quiz; 2. Use your models and handout
sheets to review the process of glycolysis and fermentation; 3. Answer
questions 1-5; 4. Set-up I; 5. Set-up II; 6. Set-up III