Physical And Chemical Changes
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Carolus Love Hoyne School
8905 S. Crandon
Chicago Il 60617
1. The students will identify some physical changes of matter.
2. The students will identify some chemical changes of matter.
3. The students will distinguish between physical and chemical changes.
4. The students will classify changes as physical or chemical.
skim milk liquid detergent microwave
vinegar hot plate salt
baking soda white bread straws
toaster toast sauce pan
molded ice water cookie cutters
bundt pan pyrex bowls pictures
plastic cups/tops whipping cream Duncan Hines Cupcake Mix
2-glass bowls orange juice letters
aluminum foil poster boards tape
glue markers measuring spoons
strainers large spoons flour
Discuss the meaning of the word change. Give examples. You were in first
grade last year and now you are in second grade. Turn the television to
another channel when you want to see a different program. Elicit other
examples of what change means to them.
1. Show the students a ball of play dough. Ask who can tell me what this is.
Allow students to take turns manipulating the play dough into various
shapes by using cookie cutters. Ask the following questions: Did it
change into a new substance? Is it still play dough? This is called a
2. Demonstrate the proper way to make a bubble. Pour bubble solution into
foil pan. Place the straw in the pan and blow into the straw. The team
who blows the biggest bubble within 30 seconds is the winner. Is it
still a soap solution? Therefore, this is a physical change.
3. Observe ice change from a solid to a liquid and then to a gas (steam).
Put a piece of ice into a pot and set it on the hot plate until it
melts, then set a piece of aluminum foil over the pot. Students will
explain what they observed and draw pictures to illustrate how the ice
changed. Although the ice changed from one phase to another, it is still
water and can return back to the solid state again.
4. Demonstrate how butter is made. Empty a 1/2 pint of whipping cream into
a plastic container and take turns shaking it. Observe how it looks,
sounds and feels. Pour off the milk and put a pinch of salt in it.
If I melt the butter and pour it back into the liquid and stir it, can we
get the whipping cream back? Their response should be yes. This is
another physical change. You can sample the butter on crackers or bread.
Define chemical change as when matter is changed into something new or a
1. Demonstrate the procedure for making glue. Put a pint of skim milk and
six tablespoons of vinegar into a glass sauce pan and heat slowly,
stirring continually. When the milk forms small curds, remove it from the
heat. Pour off the liquid. Dry the curds. Then add 1/4 cup of water and
a level tablespoon of baking soda and stir. What did you notice? They
should have noticed some bubbles. Is it still milk? Is it still baking
soda? Is it still vinegar? Is it still water? Since we do not have the
same materials we began with, this is called a chemical change.
2. Students will observe the difference between a piece of toast and a plain
slice of bread. If you scrape the brown material from the bread can you
make the brown material white again? Try and see if it can be done.
Since we can not do this, it is a chemical change.
3. Demonstrate making orange soda. Fill a glass 1/2 full of water and the
other half with orange juice. Add 1/2 teaspoon of baking soda and 1/2
teaspoon of sugar. Work in groups to make your soda. Ask the same type
of questions with each substance as in previous experiments. This is a
chemical change. The bubbles formed carbon dioxide which was caused by a
4. Teacher and assistant will help students in preparing cupcakes. Examine
the cupcake mix before and after it was cooked. How did it look? Did it
change? The baking powder is what caused the cupcakes to rise. Is it
still flour? Is is still baking powder? Is it still water? Their
response should be no. Therefore, this is a chemical change because we
have a new substance formed.
1. Given pictures of various physical and chemical changes, students will put
them under the correct heading on the chart.
2. The students will demonstrate their understanding of changes by explaining
the difference between physical and chemical change.
Vancleave, Janice Pratt. Chemistry For Every Kid. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
New York: 1988.
Walpole, Brenda. Science Experiments to Amuse and Amaze Your Friends. Random
House, New York: 1988.