"You may now enter the Holodeck."

April Luehmann Zion Lutheran School
3840 West 216th Street
Matteson IL 60443

The main objective is that students will be able to demonstrate a working
knowledge of the science of holography:

1. The students will be able to tell the story of the history of holography.
2. The students will be able to differentiate between six different kinds of
holography, and use that knowledge in problem solving.
3. The students will be able to compare and contrast photography and
holography, and therefore be able to explain the basic characteristics of a
hologram along with the reasons for such attributes.
4. The students will be able to list approximately 15-25 present applications
of holography in our world around us, from technology to advertising, from
biology to architecture, and many more, and will know one particular application
in more depth.
5. The students will be able to draw a diagram of the set-up for making a
hologram along with labels and definitions of the parts of the set-up.
6. The students will be able to explain "what's going on" in the process of
making a hologram, and they will be able to make a hologram.

Materials needed:
A variety of holograms for the students to observe
A set of cut-out pictures to teach the history
A picture of the teacher when you were younger: one for each group
A hologram (at least one per group)
Optional: Stereoscopic glasses and pre-printed images (Can be purchased at
American Science Center)
Simple costumes for three different personalities
A class set of "Area of Specialization" packets (Envelope containing a journal
article of an application of holography; a different article for each student
Supplies for making a hologram: laser, film, developing chemicals, mirrors,
watch with a light, rubber gloves, glass plates with clips, 3 tubs.

Day One: Have students observe a prepared display of a variety of holograms,
whatever you can get your hands on. Have one person from each group be
"recorder" and write down the comments the group made as they enjoyed the
holograms, along with each student's favorite and why. Discuss their
observations. Let them tell you all they saw and all their questions, but don't
feel like you have to address all these questions now. They will be answered
throughout the unit.
Have the students meet with their groups and, based only on what they saw today,
give the best definition for a hologram they together can compose.

Day Two: Have the students gather 'round you on the floor for "story time". As
you tell the story of the history of holography, put up symbols cut out of
construction paper which represent each of the most important points. (I used
11 pictures, including dates, in many colors). Hand out a picture page to each
student containing an abstract collage of the symbols you had put up in
sequence. Have them, in their heads or in pairs, practice telling the story
using their symbols. Randomly choose a child to follow your symbols and retell
the story. Ask that student to "get stuck" at least once so the class can
assist. (This takes pressure off the chosen one and keeps the class on their
toes.) Write the word "hologram" on the board. Discuss it's Greek origin.
Have them guess what each part of the word means. (whole picture)
Have the students meet with their groups and, based on what they've seen, heard,
and done yesterday and today, REVISE yesterday's definition of a hologram into a
little more precise educated guess.

Day Three: Begin by quizzing students on the history by using your symbols.
Then continue by beginning to introduce the differences between different types
of holograms when you have someone call you to leave the room. Dress as a
business man, storm in and ask the "experts in training" to solve your problem:
You, as Mr. Chang, are required to create an appealing way to counteract
counterfeiting of credit cards. Your boss has suggested holograms as a possible
solution, but you know that there are MANY kinds of holograms, and you have no
idea which kind your need for your purpose. Tell them you'll return later for
their response and leave. Change your attire two more times creating two new
personalities with two completely different needs and functions for holography.
Come back as yourself and play dumb: make them explain what happened while you
were gone. As they do, list the needs as characteristics of holograms under
each character's name. For example: Mr. Chang - mass production, inexpensive,
attractive, small, etc. Then teach them about six different types of holograms.
Assign each group one character as a customer. Have them develop an argument
for which type of hologram to use and why they would want THAT type of hologram
as opposed to others. Stress the fact that there is no wrong answer; the
argument is what's important. Find another excuse to leave, come back as the
characters, and make them defend their recommendation.
Have each group meet to update and revise their definition of a hologram.

Day Four: Hand each group a picture of you and at least one hologram. Discuss
with them the "rules of brainstorming," (emphasizing no dumb answers, write down
everything, analyze answers LATER.) Have them write these at the top of the
handout. On the rest of the handout, have them list the ways photographs and
holograms are the same and how they are different. After approximately 15
minutes, meet together as a class and discuss. Use this time to show them the
basics of how a photograph is made using a lens to focus the image on the film,
and how a hologram is made with two beams which cover the film. Compare for
them the negative of a photograph and the "negative" of a hologram. Now show
them the stereoscopic viewer. If the main difference between a photograph and a
hologram is 2-D verses 3-D, what's the difference between a stereoscopic (3-D)
photograph and a hologram. Let the groups work together on comparing them.
(Stereoscopic photo: only one 3-D view, Hologram: many different 3-D views).
Discuss their results.
Have the groups revise their definition of a hologram.

Day Five: Discuss the importance of having an area of specialization
(optometrist, podiatrist,...) Pass out a manila folder to each student labeled
"TOP SECRET, Area of Specialization." In each student's folder include an
UNIQUE journal article concerning an application of holography. (There are TONS
of very interesting articles in the library: holography in chocolate,
holography in airplanes, drying cement, telegrams,...) Send each of them to
find a secluded location to read and become informed on their area. When they
return, they are to be prepared to give a 10 second summary (1-2 sentences) on
what their area is about and a 10 second summary using creative words to grab
someone's attention explaining the most amazing aspects of their area. They
also must be knowledgeable about their topic because they could be questioned
further if someone shows interest in that topic. When they return, make each
child stand, state their name, and state their summaries. Have them end each
response in "ma'am," so you understand they're done. For example, You: "State
your name." John: "Special Agent John Miller, ma'am." At the end of everyone's
report, allow the class to ask specific questions of any of the special agents
concerning his/her area of specialization.
Have the groups meet to revise their definition of a hologram based on the past 5 days.

Day Six: You will be gradually sketching a typical set-up of a holography lab
on the board as you go through this period. Begin by getting them to compare
holography to photography and separate the process into three steps: taking the
photo, developing, and viewing. Compare this to holography: making the
hologram, develop it, and reconstruct or view it. As you sketch each section
(the lasers and object for making the hologram, the holographic plate for
developing, and an additional light source to view it), review the basic physics
principles concerning holography: smooth and diffuse reflection, interference
patterns, and diffraction. (These have all been covered by the time we study
holography.) Moire patterns can be used to demonstrate interference. If time,
or perhaps the following day, blindfold four students, create a "fake" darkroom,
and have them demonstrate the motions of "how to make and develop a hologram" as
you explain what they are doing.
CULMINATION ACTIVITY: Have them make a hologram. (As experts, tell them, "You
may now enter the holodeck.")

Performance Assessment:
Give me your best definition of a hologram: (Be careful not to say too much or
be too wordy or use more words to say what you could've said in less words.)
Answer, as an expert with supporting reasons, the question a stranger inquires
of you:
1. List some present applications to holography. As an expert, where
do you see holography being used in the future?
2. Why are TWO beams of light necessary to create a hologram?
3. Why is a hologram said to be a "window with a memory?"

Expected Results: Students should show an understanding of the practical
applications of holography both as an art and as a science, demonstrate an
understanding of the basic principles of physics that apply to holography, and
show an understanding of the characteristics of a hologram that make it unique
and valuable.

5 Points: Answers are creative, clear and accurate. Student shows an in depth
understanding of the physics in holography: reflection, interference,
and diffraction.
4 Points: Answers are accurate and creative. Going into explanations the
specifics of interference is not necessary. Questions answered
3 Points: Answers accurate, but lacking creativity. Fails to demonstrate
understanding of interference.
2 Points: Answers all questions with considerable ammount of effort. May be
lacking a little in accuracy and creativity.
1 Point: Answers demonstrate little effort.
0 Points: No effort.

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