```Earthquake Waves And Their DestructionsSharione O. Mays               Donald Morrill                               6011 S. Rockwell Street                               Chicago IL 60629                               (312) 535-9288Objectives:1. Students will learn characteristics of primary waves and secondary waves. 2. Students will learn how to measure the magnitude of waves.3. Students will learn how to find the epicenter of earthquakes.4. Students will learn why waves are more destructive in some areas than others. Materials:
Activities are recommended for groups of four.
ropes, slinky toys, graphing paper, pencils/markers, ring stands with cross bars
carts with wheels, large floor-size erasable world map, 2 liter clear plastic
bottles, sand, tin foil pans, plastic and wood model houses, containers of
water, stop watch, and spring scales.

Strategy:

Introduction: Today, we are going to investigate the two types of earthquake
waves.  They are surface waves and body waves.

Vocabulary Building through discovery:  Looking at the word "surface".  Through
the use of questions, the students should be able to infer its meaning by
directing the students to the three parts of the earth [crust, mantel, and
core].  "Surface" should be similar to the crust of the earth.  "Body" should
be similar to the earth's mantel and core.
Ex:  What part of the earth would be the surface?
What part of you is the body?
What parts of earth would represent the body?

First, we will be discovering the two kinds of body waves.

Activity:  Those "Jumping Waves"1.  Give each group a jump rope and let them create waves.2.  Allow one student from each group to draw the kinds of waves created.3.  Use the drawings to identify the kind of waves that ropes create as being     "transverse waves". 4.  Label the various parts of a transverse wave.  The "crest" can be the high     density.  The "trough" can be your low density.  "Wavelength" must have one     crest, and one trough. Activity:  Those "Slinky Waves"1.  Give each group a slinky, and allow them to create more waves.2.  Allow one student from each group to draw the kinds of waves created.3.  Label all the waves that are "transverse waves", and identify the new    waves as a "compressional wave".4.  Label the parts of the "compressional wave".  The part of the slinky that    is tight or close together is called "compressed".  The loose part of the     slinky is known as the "rarefaction".Activity:  The "Race"1.  Take the longest slinky, and a spring scale.  At various tension, let the     students use a timer to see which waves travel the fastest.  Take at least     three timings.  "Compressional Waves" should win this race.  Therefore, we     are going to call them "Primary Waves" or "P Waves" for short.  Now,     "transverse waves" came in second place, we will call them "Secondary Waves"     or "S Waves". 2.  "Surface Waves" always occur at the surface or the "crest" of the earth.    This wave rides on top of the " P Waves" and the" S Waves", so it is called    the "Love Waves" or "L Waves". " Surface Waves" are the most destructive    wave.    "Compressional Waves" displace soil, sand, and rocks in front and back along     its path.  "Transverse Waves" displace material perpendicular along its     path.     The first signal of an earthquake is a sharp thump, compressional waves,     shear waves and finally the ground rolls caused by surface waves. Activity:  Measuring Waves with a seismograph1.  Take a ring stand attach a string long enough to reach the surface of the     cart. 2.  Tie the other end of the string to a marker, so that, the tip of the marker     touches the graphing paper. 3.  Make a chart on the graph paper.  Let the y-axis represent magnitude, and     the x-axis distance. 4.  Next, shake the table to create an earthquake using low intensity to high     intensity.     There are two ways that scientist measure earthquake waves.  They use     magnitude, or intensity.  The seismograph measures "magnitude" which deals     with the waves along.  "Intensity" measures destruction of earthquake waves     by the number of deaths, and other visual means.     When I refer to "low" or "high" intensity, it will relate to force or energy     applied. Activity:  Locating, and Plotting Epicenters1.  Place a large erasable world map on the floor.2.  Using prepared card containing latitudes, and another set with longitudes    coordinates of various earthquake locations.  Give each student a card.3.  Call out coordinates in pairs.4.  Next, give each child a toy car.  They are to place their cars on the     appropriate latitude or longitude lines.5.  Roll the cars on their appropriate line and mark the point of intersection.                                                                                Before this activity, you may take the students through directions finding    hemispheres, locating continents and oceans.    Epicenters are the origin of earthquakes.Activity:  Is the Earth a Solid Core?  Liquefaction1.  Take a tin pan and pour sand into it.  Just enough to cover the bottom.2.  Pour just enough water to saturate.3.  Pour another layer of sand.4.  Place a wooden house, or a monopoly game house on top of the sand.5.  Create an earthquake, either shake or strike the desk.    What happened to the house?Activity:  Liquefaction in a Bottle1.  Pour sand into a plastic or jar bottle using a funnel.  The sand    should measure about 2-3 inches in height.2.  Use a large nail and put a hole into the lids.3.  Put water into another plastic bottle.4.  Take the lids and run plastic tubing.  Make sure the tubing is long    enough to reach the sand in the other bottle.5.  Drop your model house into the bottle of sand.6.  Put the lids on both bottles.7.  Squeeze the bottle containing the water, and saturate the bottle containing    the sand.8.  Create an earthquake.    What do you observe?    Liquefaction occurs because of unconsolidated sand, clay or rocks.    Location is important in deciding on where you should live in this     world.  9.  Review the activity on epicenters.  Bring out the floor map.      Where do we find most of our epicenters located?    Are they located by water?    What type of soil do you find?    Is water important to creating liquefaction?    Where would you choose to live?```