```Experiments in ProbabilityRobert Foote                   Disney Magnet School                               4140 N. Marine Drive                               Chicago Illinois 60613                               (312) 534-5840Objective(s):  This lesson can be used for seventh or eighth grade.                          The students will be able to:                              -compute probabilities as fractions and percents.-perform simple experiments to determine outcomes.-record results on a data table.-work in cooperative groups.State Goals:Students will be able to:-perform the computations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and divisionusing whole numbers, integers, fractions and decimals.-understand and use methods of data collection and analysis, including tables,charts, and comparisons.-have a working knowledge of the principles of scientific research and their application in simple research projects.Materials Needed:Experiment 1: 2 dice and a paper cup.Experiment 2: 3 white dice, 2 red dice and a paper cup.Experiment 3: 3 pennies(or other coins) and a paper cup.Experiment 4: Pencil and paper clip,handout with spinner diagram.Handouts with data tables for each experiment. Warmup Activity:  60 identical marbles labeled 1 through 60 and a bag.Strategy:As a warmup activity for this lesson, have every group pick 6 different numbersbetween 1 and 60 and write them down on an index card.  During the course of the lessons, 6 marbles will be picked out of a bag of 60 labeled marbles.  The  group whose numbers on the card most closely matches the drawn marbles will win a prize.  If there is a tie for this Lotto simulation, the prize will be  shared by both groups.Each group of four will be given the role of experimenter, observer, calculator or recorder.  Since there are four experiments, each group will change roles when changing experiments.  By the end of the four experiments, all members ofthe group will have played each role once. Each of the experiments,Spin a Spinner,Choose Colored Cubes,Tossing ThreeCoins,and Rolling Two Dice with be set up at stations with the materials needed.  Groups will rotate after 10 minutes and then go on to the next experiment.  The procedure for each experiment will be explained prior toconducting the experiments. All data for each experiment will be recordedby each group. The procedure for each experiment is as follows:Spin A Spinner- Using worksheet provided with a spinner, students will usea pencil and a paper clip to spin the spinner 25 times and record in theirdata where it lands.(A,B,C,D).Starting the paper clip at the same placeeach time will lead to invalid data.  Start each spin from where the previousspin landed.  Choose Colored Cubes-  Students place 3 white and 2 red cubes in a cup.  Shakethe cubes and draw one cube from the cup.  Replace it and repeat the procedure.Record the result on the data table. Repeat the procedure 25 times.Tossing Three Coins- Students place 3 pennies in a cup.  Shake the pennieson to a table or counter.  Record the number of heads and tails showing on thedata table. Replace the pennies and repeat the procedure. Do the experiment25 times.Rolling Two Dice- Students place dice in a cup and shake them on the counteror tabletop.  Record the sum of the two dice on the data table. Repeat the procedure a total of 25 times.Performance Assessment: Each of the data tables will be a performance assessment.  Each of the tablesshould show that the experiment has been performed and the percent column on thechart should be correctly computed.  All experiments should show a total of 25outcomes and should be closed to theoretical probability for each of the events.Reference:Lovell, Robert.  Probability Activities for Problem Solving and Skills
and Skills Reinforcement. Key Curriculum Press,1993.                                         ```