`Moving, Pushing and Pulling                                                    Joy Kitchen Ward               Hope Academy                               5515 South Lowe                               Chicago  IL  60621                               (312) 535-3160 State Goal 3 and 4:As a result of their schooling, students will have a working knowledge of:- the principles of scientific research and their application in simple   research projects;- the processes, techniques, methods, equipment and available technology of  scienceOutcomes:- Students will be able to analyze, evaluate or replicate the experimental work  of others.- Students will be able to observe, classify and predict- Students will be able to make inferences about phenomena observed.- Students will be able to collect data, define concepts and verify results.Objective:Grade 7 and 8Students will learn how to apply natural laws (specifically Newton's Laws) inscience through observation, manipulation and assessmentMaterials Needed:Audience: Class of 32 students divided into cooperative learning groupsToy dishes, small tablecloth, toy trucks, cars, tractors, ball and paddle,klick-klackers, beach ball, footballTransparencies of ski jumper, football players, diver, someone jumping fromboat, earth showing gravitational pullOverhead projector, blank transparency and marker  Strategy:1. Throw ball back and forth.  What is happening?2. Push, pull and move toys.  How are they all alike?  What do they do?3. When they stand still how do we describe the toys? (at rest)4. When we push the toys we say they are in (motion).5. Put dishes on small tablecloth and try to pull the tablecloth from under-   neath them.  What does this show? (inertia)6. Students will manipulate ball and paddle and klick-klackers.  What does this    show? (action-reaction)7. Have students throw the football.  Then have students simulate tackling and   falling.  What does this show? (motion and inertia)8. Transparencies - Students will identify what law each picture shows. (Newton's   laws of motion and gravitational force)Assessments:1. Identify what picture/activity showed what law2. Self-assessment-I know Newton's Laws because...(3 of 4 items correct)3. Portfolio-Cut out a picture or draw a picture that shows Newton's Laws.   Write the law and color the pictures.4. Performance Assessment-(similar to IGAP)-Students must select one of four   items correctly.(3 of 4 questions)5. Students will use an abacus and identify what on the abacus shows Newton's   Laws.`