Will White                     Copernicus School
                               60l0 Throop Street
                               Chicago, IL

 1.  Being able to identify parts of plant and animal cells and to 
     describe function(s) of each part. 
 2.  Being able to distinguish between plant and animal cells.

    Solution of sodium borate (see attached)
    Solution of polyvinyl alcohol (see attached)
    Zip-lock transparent sandwich bag for each pupil
    Modeling clay
    Saran Wrap
    Lima bean seeds - dyed
    Dry rice - dyed
    Packing  material bubbles
    Overhead projector
    Containers - McDonald`s hamburger boxes and petri dishes

    1.  Abstract to Concrete
        a.  Develop vocabulary and describe functions associated with 
            each organelle by:
            (1)  Listing the following on chalkboard and discussing functions:
                 plasma membrane     cytoplasm     nucleus     cell wall 
                 vacuole     mitochondria     ribosomes     chloroplasts   
                 nuclear membrane
            (2)  Use overhead projector and transparencies to show   
                 plant and animal cells to reinforce structure name and     
                 function  of each part.
        b.  Construct models of plant cell and animal cell by adding 
            mixture of polyvinyl and sodium borate into sandwich bags.  To  
            this mixture add organelles  (nucleus-clay   nuclear membrane-
            saran wrap     vacuoles-bubbles    mitochondria-dyed dry rice    
            ribosomes-peppercorns embedded in thin rolls of clay)  (cell 
            wall and chloroplasts-hamburger container and dyed lima beans 
            added to plant cell.        
        c.  Review with worksheet that requires students to distinguish      
            between plant and animal cell and describe functions of each 
    2.  Concrete to Abstract
        a.  Worksheet used as guide in constructing models of plant and      
            animal cell.
        b.  Names and functions of each organelle discussed as each item is
        c.  Review structures and corresponding functions through use of 
            chalkboard and overhead projector.
            1 liter-polyvinyl alcohol mixture 
                 l.  Using magnetic automatic stirring hot plate and large   
                     beaker, heat l liter of distilled water to boiling. 
                 2.  40 grams of polyvinyl alcohol powder added gradually 
                     (approximately 2 or 3 grams at a time) until            
                     dissolved.  Continue adding polyvinyl powder until 40 
                     grams have been dissolved in l liter of distilled 
            100 milliliters-sodium borate - Mix 4 grams of sodium borate 
                     powder to 100 ml of tap water in container.            
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