```Population Study and Applications Using PTC PaperSusan H. Smigla                Leslie Lewis Elementary                               1431 N. Leamington Ave.                               Chicago, Illinois  60651                               (312) 534-3060   Objectives:1) To understand the terms dominant, recessive, haploid (monoploid), diploid,     genotype, phenotype, scientific sampling and scientific modeling. 2) To know and understand how human population traits such as PTC tasting,     widow's peak, bent little finger, tongue rolling and many other traits are    distributed. 3) To understand how the various genotypic ratios are distributed throughout    a population.4) To understand the laws of chance and how they are applied to population    genetics.Materials:PTC Testing Paper (if testing for that trait), graph paper, 2 coins of the same denomination for each team.  (Students can provide their own coins.)Strategy:To demonstrate scientific sampling, have the class test themselves to see which students in the class are PTC tasters and which are not.  Have the students  test their families and/or use the data from several classes to provide a sufficiently large representation of the population to work with. Graph the data.  Title the graph PTC Tasters (or PTC Nontasters).  Label the horizontal axis "Number of Tasters" (Nontasters) and the vertical axis "Total Number of People Sampled".  Plot a "best fit curve".  To obtain a ratio, divide the total number of tasters (nontasters) by the total number of people sampled. To demonstrate scientific modeling, divide the class into partners.  Use a "cointoss" with 2 coins of the same type for each pair of partners.  Put the coins inthe hand, cup the hands and shake them.  Open up the hands and allow the coins to roll out onto the table.  Put down tally marks in the appropriate columns to reflect the combinations shown.
Counts    |         Possible Combinations