`MomentumSandi Sorkin                   Newton Bateman                               4220 N. Richmond                               Chicago IL 60618                               (312) 534-5055Objectives:The main objective of this mini-teach is to demonstrate the concept of momentum. The lesson is designed for grade levels 3, 4, and 5.Materials Needed:3 dynamics cartshammerblock of woodJensen Barmarked off measurements4 empty pop canssmall fire crackerskatestape measureStrategy:1. Hold the cart in your hand and demonstrate how the cart works by releasing the spring.  Ask the students, "What happens when I release the spring?  Why doesn't it go?" 2. Take the cart and place it next to a wooden block.  Ask the students "What do you think will happen when I release the spring?"  Get their responses.  Ask, "What happened?"      3. Take 2 carts back to back and place on a wooden board (platform).  Ask the class what will happen?  Release the cart and measure the distance.  What happened? 4. Compare the results of the equal carts with the cart against the block.  Did they do the same thing?      5. Double the weight of one cart by placing a cart on top of another cart.  Ask class what will happen.  Get response and then release the spring.6. Place a block at each end of a flat board.  Place a single cart back to back with a double cart.  Ask the class how the carts should be placed so that they will hit the blocks at the same time.  "What can we say?"  Write on the board that "lighter" is faster and "heavier" is slower. 7. Place 2 single carts on a balance board or teeter totter.  What will happen when the spring is released?  Will they stay balanced?8. Place 2 unequal carts on teeter totter and ask how you should move carts so they reach end of board at the same time and the board remains balanced.  Explain that when the heavier cart is half as far from pivot the board is always balanced.  This only happens if the speeds are 2:1. 9. Take out the Jensen Bar and ask if you move the heavier weight on one hook where do you move the lighter weight to balance?  Compare this information with where the carts land on the teeter totter.  Ask class if the distance is the same ratio.  Jensen Bar shows 2 mass x 1 distance = 1 mass x 2 distance. Momentum shows that 2 mass x 1 speed = 1 mass x 2 speeds.  When the total momentum is zero the teeter totter is balanced. 10. Place 3 carts back to back and release the springs.  What happens?11. Have 2 children on skates face to face and ask what is going to happen if they push off of each other.  Have the children push off and observe.12. Have the skaters facing the same direction.  What will happen when the skater in back pushes from behind?  Have skaters do this. 13. Using 4 or 5 skaters lined up - ask what is going to happen when skater at the end pushes skater in front and then each one every 2 seconds pushes the other. Have the skaters enact this.  For variety  have skaters randomly change their order and see what happens.14. Take 2 empty pop cans of equal weight and place a fire cracker taped between them.  Ask what will happen.  Set off the fire cracker.  Now repeat this, but this time have some melted wax in only one can, so that it is twice the mass of the other, but do not let the students know. Performance Assessment:Do not tell students that the weight in one of the cans is heavier.  As an assessment ask what happened when the 2 cans were set off and explain why.`