`What's the Matter?:  The Three Phases of MatterLee McLaurin                   Edward Franklin Frazier School                               4027 W.  Grenshaw                               Chicago Illinois 60624                               (312)638-3452Objective(s):     This lesson can be modified to be taught to any grade level K-8, but it is primarily for 4-6 grade.  The students will be able to categorize materials as solids, liquids, or gases.  The students will be able to recognize examples of the structure of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases. Materials Needed:1 Wood Block or Ice Block      1 Small Bowl           1 Pot1 Glass of Marbles or Water    1 Box of Cornstarch1 Balloon                      1 Stirring Utensil1 Hot Plate                    Food Color1 250ml Beaker                 WaterStrategy:   The teacher introduces the topic by asking the students to name different kinds of objects.  Ask the students what all the items have in common.  Point out that all of the objects are composed of matter.  Define matter as anything that has mass and takes up space.  Remind students that mass is the amount of matter an object contains.  Point out to students that matter has three different phases (solid, liquid, and gas).  Illustrate the particle arrangement in the three states of matter.  Show the students a glass of water or marbles.  If using the marbles, tell the students that the marbles represent the particles of matter sliding past each other.  Display a block of wood or ice, a balloon filled with air, and a pot of boiling water.  Illicit from students that gases and liquids have no definite shape.  Have pictures of a football, tennis ball, basketball, and bicycle tire.  Ask the students what each of these objects is filled with (air).  Illicit from students that air and water will be the same shape of the container that holds it.  Have the students observe the pot of boiling water for about ten seconds.  Point out that steam is a type of gas.  Ask them if the steam comes out of the pot in a regular pattern (no).  Rap the discussion by having the students list the properties of the different phases of matter. Activity:  "Starchy Goop" Using the 250ml beaker, pour cornstarch into the beaker until it is level with the top of the beaker.  Pour the cornstarch in to a mixing bowl.  Mix a solution of 110ml of water, and 4-8 drops of food color.  Combine this mixture with the cornstarch.  Be sure to stir slowly, but consistently.  Put a bowl of water next to this mixture.  Ask the students what should happen to a liquid mixture if you punch it with your fist (it should splash).  Demonstrate.  Ask them what should happen if you punch any liquid (it should also splash).  Ask the students what should happen if you were to punch a solid (it will not splash).  Pour the cornstarch mixture into another bowl in front of the students (for added effect).  Ask them what will happen to the cornstarch mixture (it does not splash).  Roll a piece between the palms of your hands into a ball.  Ask the students if this is a solid or a liquid.  After they answer, stop rolling it and watch what happens.  Allow the students to make their own "Starchy Goop."  Let them examine and describe it.  The mixture seems to have some properties of liquids and solids.Performance Assessment:   The assessment that I would use would be to have 10 items (solids, liquids, and gases) in front of the students.  They would be required to put them in the proper categories.  The students would also have to match the item with it's likely particle arrangement.  Each part would be worth 5 points for a total of 100 points.  95-100=Exceeds.  75-90=Meets.  70 and Below=Does Not Meet. `